Nazi War Crimes & Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group Final Report to the United States Congress April 2007
日本と直接戦っていたアメリカが、日本の戦争犯罪を追及する議会の正式な調査。全報告書中、”Comfort Women”は下記の３箇所のみ。”Sex Slaves”が１箇所のみ。
#IWG Final Report to Congress 20p
Japan Under Scrutiny
Public interest in Japanese war crimes arose intermittently in the postwar period as the stories of victims received public notice as a result of historical and popular studies and media attention. Books such as the late Sheldon Harris’ 1994 Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-1945 and the American Cover-up and the late Iris Chang’s 1997 best seller, The Rape of Nanking, helped give the subject visibility.44 The earliest groups to receive attention were American POWs and civilian internees who made claims under the War Claims Act after its passage in 1948. However, mistreated POWs, sex slaves (the so-called “comfort women”), civilian internees, and forced laborers remained dissatisfied with the extent of compensation—if any—for their suffering. Even more of an irritant to these groups, however, has been the failure of the Japanese Government to apologize fully for its wartime behavior with regard to acts of cruelty such as harsh forced labor, conditions aboard the POW transports known as “hell ships,” and the criminal brutality of the Bataan Death March. Victims have repeatedly called for redress, citing as precedent settlements in the late 1990s between victims of Nazi looting and the German Government and Swiss banks. In the 1990s, no fewer than 16 measures dealing with Japanese war crimes were introduced in the Congress in attempts to secure some sort of redress for victims.45 For instance, in 1997 a joint resolution was introduced in Congress that expressed a number of groups’ frustration with the stance of the United States and Japanese governments with respect to Japanese accountability for war crimes committed byImperial Japan. House Concurrent Resolution 126 sought to express the sense of Congress concerning war crimes committed by the Japanese military during World War II. After listing particular offenses, characterized as “atrocious crimes against humanity,” the resolution called on Japan to
(1) formally issue a clear and unambiguous apology for the atrocious war crimes committed by
the Japanese military during World War II; and
(2) immediately pay reparations to the victims of those crimes, including United States military and
civilian prisoners of war, people of Guam who were subjected to violence and imprisonment,
survivors of the “Rape of Nanjing” from December, 1937, until February, 1938, and the women who were forced into sexual slavery and known by the Japanese military as “comfort women.”46
46. House Concurrent Resolution 126 “Expressing the Sense of Congress Concerning War Crimes Committed By the Japanese Military During WWII,” 105th Congress. Available online at http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=105_cong_bills&docid=f:hc126ih.txt.
#Background of the Acts 21p
By February 2000, more than a dozen classaction lawsuits had been filed in the United States against Japanese corporations by former Allied prisoners of war, civilian internees, and Asian slave laborers. Additional suits were filed and in preparation for Japanese courts seeking redress for “comfort women,” slave laborers, and other victims of Japanese crimes, all of whom demanded a Japanese apology and compensation from Japanese courts.
#Overview of the IWG 27p
IWG Guidance on Preliminary Surveys
The IWG directed agencies to include in their preliminary surveys any records that were likely to contain information on war crimes, war criminals, acts of persecution, and looting of assets. Although the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act targeted records of crimes committed 1933–45 in particular geographic locations, relevant records could be dated up to the present, and they could be located among Government records relating to any country in the world.In his December 5, 2000, memorandum, Berger directed agencies to locate records held by the U.S.Government relating to war crimes committed by agents of the Government of Japan during the period 1931–45, although the records themselves could have been created later. The IWG advised agencies to give particular attention to locating any records related to topics of great interest to the public and to historians, particularly materials related to
・Japanese treatment of prisoners of war and civilian internees, cluding any materials related to forced or slave labor;
・persecution of and atrocities against civilian populations;
・development and use of chemical and biologicalwarfare agents, especially the work of General Ishii, medical experimentation on
humans, and Unit 731;
・the so-called “comfort women” program—the Japanese systematic enslavement of women of subject populations for sexual purposes; and
・the U.S. Government decision after the war not to prosecute the Emperor and certain war criminals.
The IWG enjoined agencies to conduct their surveys with the intention of discovering and eventually declassifying as many documents as possible, not merely those that were indisputably required by a narrow interpretation of the law.